THE ARCHIVE IN CLONGOWES WOOD COLLEGE

The College and Castle today. The windows of the archive may be seen in the bottom left hand corner of the castle building

History and development

Clongowes Wood College SJ, near Clane in Co Kildare has a long and rich history of education in Ireland since it was founded in 1814 by Fr Peter Kenney SJ. It was the first work of the Society of Jesus worldwide following its restoration that year after 41 years of suppression; indeed the Irish operation predated the lifting of the order of suppression by several months. The college was located outside of Dublin to avoid affront to the British authorities as the Penal Laws remained in force and constraints on Catholic Education were many. The founding fathers had spotted something of a gap in the market; they had decided to educate the sons of the middle class, who previously had the choice of sending their boys to England (with its uncertain religious background) or mainland Europe (which posed difficulties of finance, language, culture and distance). Daniel O’Connell acted as advisor to Fr Kenney, and encouraged him to purchase land that had been confiscated as, with such a property, one could prove title. Richard Reynell, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas under Cromwell, had been granted the castle and surrounding lands in 1667 and the estate was confirmed to him by letters patent of Charles II. Reynall sold the castle and 1,000 acres to Thomas Browne, a Dublin barrister and a Catholic, for £2,100. Browne changed the name to Castle Browne, by which it was known until 1814 when it was changed back to Clongowes by the Jesuits.[1]

The chosen location was a historic one as it was on the line of The Pale and there had been castles on the site since 1450. The new school occupied the relatively modern 18th century version with the entire community of Jesuits and students living in the same building. The Jesuits began to expand the campus almost immediately with the addition of a refectory and a study hall (still in use today) and the buildings continued their march to the south and west over the next two centuries with the addition of dormitories, classrooms, an infirmary and swimming ‘baths’ (the oldest indoor pool in Ireland). Development continues apace in the 21st century with the addition of modern science, art and technology facilities, a large sports hall and a new swimming pool. The college includes a working dairy farm as well as 150 acres of land dedicated to playing fields and recreation space, including rugby and soccer pitches, tennis courts and a golf course and is home to some 450 boys from Ireland, the UK, Europe and further afield.

The front of the castle (the original school) today

Notable past pupils

For more than two centuries, the college has produced many notable alumni including leaders in business, politics, social justice, sport and the arts. Graduates of the college have gone on to become leaders in Ireland and the Jesuit project was encapsulated in one man in 1914, when Old Clongownian, John Redmond was on the brink of becoming the first Prime Minister of Home Rule Ireland. Other prominent past pupils range from the author James Joyce (part of whose novel A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man is set in the school) to Michael O’Leary of Ryanair by way of rugby international Rob Kearney, Taoiseach John Bruton, Tánaiste Simon Coveney and Fr Peter McVerry SJ, champion of the homeless.

The Archival Collection

The collection, which has been built up over more than two centuries since the Society of Jesus purchased the property in 1814 from the Wogan-Browne family, comprises papers, visual materials and artifacts relating to the history of Clongowes since its foundation. There are bound volumes of handwritten records from the 19th and early 20th centuries as well as school attendance and examination records, books of account and diaries that were kept by the Rector and Prefect of Studies[2]. There are also copies of various prospectuses as well as some journals and magazines. These include all issues of the school annual, The Clongownian (a valuable historical resource which has been published since 1895) and other occasional school publications since its earliest days. There are photograph albums, VCR tapes, DVDs, maps and floor plans/sketches for building projects.

A 19th Century Line Drawing of the Castle and College. Courtesy of the Clongowes Wood College Archive

The collection includes the Exemplification of Title granted to Thomas Browne by Charles II (1682) and various deeds of title for lands and other legal documents (all parchment). There are materials from the collections of previous owners, when the buildings and grounds were in private hands (most recently those of the Wogan-Brownes) as well as items donated by various Jesuits and Old Clongownians. There are also some artifacts of both a religious and a personal nature including an original school uniform and some school caps (c.1850), sundry medals, a chalice, a monstrance, original glass plates of overhead photographs taken from a kite, a Papal Hat (Pius XII), a Rugby International Cap, a penknife belonging to Liam Mellows and a Ceramic Poppy from the Tower of London commemorating World War I. The material is stored in a secure room in the castle, with some of these items on rotating display in a gallery that links that building with the school. 


Descriptive List

The collection is divided into eight series. The first chronicles the history and involvement of the Jesuit Community both in the school and its hinterland from the earliest days through the changes in the management structure in 1971 to today’s much smaller population of priests and brothers. The second comprises materials relating to the purchase of the castle and grounds and the subsequent development, repair, extension and maintenance of the many other buildings that have arisen as the school has developed. The third series contains documents pertaining to the governance of the college and the Jesuit Community therein and reflects the changing nature of both as the school population has expanded and the Jesuit community dwindled leading to almost exclusively lay control. The fourth is concerned with the Jesuit Ethos in the school, how it has been and continues to be manifest in the pastoral activities of the pupils and the changing emphasis as its custody moves from Jesuit hands to those of their lay colleagues.

Ratio Studiorum

The changing nature of education in the school from the initial classical approach of the Jesuit Plan of Studies – the Ratio Studiorum – via the modernising effect of the Intermediate Education Act of 1878 to the modern points based system is traced in the fifth series, while the sixth comprises materials pertaining to the many indoor co-curricular activities such as debating, drama, music and academic presentations, which are fundamental to the original Jesuit plan and still core to the school. The seventh series contains materials relevant to the many outdoor co-curricular activities including athletics, football, cricket, tennis and golf as well as the history of some pursuits that are now extinct such as ‘The Stonyhurst Game’ of gravel football. The final series relates to the financial stewardship of the school from income in the form of fees, government grants and bequests to capital and current expenditure.

Access arrangements

It is the intention of Clongowes that the collections in the archive be made as available as possible in line with the principles of access espoused by The International Council on Archives and the profession’s presumption of openness. This approach also falls in line with that of the Irish Jesuit Province to make known the existence of all archives under its control and its proactive approach to access.

The archive in Clongowes Wood College is available to researchers by appointment (045 -868202). Access is normally granted on Tuesdays and Thursdays (09.00-17.00) during the academic year, but other days (and times of year) are possible by arrangement. Records of past pupils are in high demand from relatives researching family history – in particular from the 19th and early 20th centuries. Well known past pupils such as Thomas Francis Meagher, James Joyce, John Redmond and Kevin O’Higgins attract attention from researchers, who may visit the archive in person. Visitors are accommodated in a spacious research room, which also contains a library of history and reference books relevant to the history of the college while further reading material may be sourced from the Jesuit Community Library in the castle.

Note on access during COVID19

The archive is currently unavailable to visiting researchers due to the prevailing pandemic. In practice this makes little difference, as actual visits are normally few with the majority of enquiries being submitted remotely by mail or email. In response the archivist does the research and mails or emails the results to those making enquiries and this facility continues to be available during these straitened times.

Declan O’Keeffe

Assistant Archivist and College Historian; Editor, The Clongownian

June 15, 2020


[1] Brendan Cullen, A Short History of Clongowes Wood College, 2-3.

[2] Prior to the institution of the office of Headmaster / School Principal in 1971, the college was managed by a Rector with the assistance of a Prefect of Studies (both Jesuits). The former was head of the Jesuit Community as well as Headmaster of the School while the latter combined the roles of Assistant Headmaster / Deputy Principal with that of Head of Boarding.

Historic property listing for I’m a Celebrity castle uncovered as part of Explore Your Archive week

A historic property listing for Gwrych Castle, made famous by this year’s series of I’m a Celebrity… Get Me Out of Here! has been uncovered, ahead of Explore Your Archive Week (Saturday 21st – Sunday 29th November 2020).

The 19th century castle and estate, which is based near Abergele in Conwy, is the first UK location to be used in the returning popular entertainment show usually filmed in the warmer location of Australia.

The discovered property listing and accompanying photographs (full copy in notes to editor) is dated 1946 and offers the castle for auction. Described as the “The Well-known Picturesque Castle”, the listing gives us a valuable insight into how it would have looked over 80 years ago. The document states that the castle was built during the Regency Period by Lloyd Bamford Hesketh, Esquire, and “is reputed to have cost a fortune”.

It details 26 bedrooms and 7 bathrooms, within an estate that covered 1400 acres, the equivalent of 700 football pitches, including outbuildings, lodges, gardens, woodland and parkland.

The castle has had a long and varied history, as the family home of the Earls of Dundonald, as a tourist attraction, and with proposals in the 1990s to turn it into a luxury hotel. During World War II it served as a safe haven for hundreds of Jewish children as part of Operation Kindertransport. It is now in the custody of The Gwrych Castle Preservation Trust who were able to purchase it in 2018 on behalf of the nation.

This insight into the castle’s past has been shared by the North East Wales Archives with accompanying pictures provided by the Gwynedd Archive Service as part of Explore Your Archive week, which is organised by the UK Archives and Records Association, and supported in Wales by Archives and Records Council Wales. The annual week-long campaign encourages people across Wales to discover something new and exciting within the nation’s archives, whether that’s delving into your own family history or finding out the stories about the people and places at the heart of Welsh communities.

Sarah Roberts, archivist from the North East Wales Archives, said: “Gwyrch Castle had kept the Dundonald family in lavish surroundings since the 1870s and would have been a much more comfortable place to live than the viper vaults the I’m a Celebrity contestants are putting up with right now.

“Following the Second World War, when the property was used as part of the Kindertransport programme to house Jewish refugees, the family decided to auction the house. Despite numerous

attempts over the years to turn the building into a hotel or tourist attraction the house fell slowly into disrepair until taken over by The Gwrych Castle Preservation Trust. It’s brilliant to see it reach households all over the country now and viewers can explore its story and others like this by looking into their local archives.”

Alongside the Gwrych Castle listing, Archives Wales is sharing a letter from pre 1879 using an early form of emojis, documentation of the 1866 Caernarfon cholera epidemic, and the household staple from the 1960s, a Green Shield Stamp booklet.

Archives Wales promotes the work of Welsh Archive Services and the country’s rich documentary heritage. Ordinarily, services across Wales, based in local authority record offices, national institutions and universities would invite the public to join them at a variety of events, but due to the Covid-19 pandemic, this year’s campaign will be held digitally. People across Wales and the world are being encouraged to log on to online archives to connect with the country’s past.

The Welsh Government’s Deputy Minister for Culture, Tourism and Sport, Lord Elis-Thomas, said: “Archives remain a vital resource for understanding our national, community and personal histories in these unprecedented times. While people may not be able to visit our archive services physically at the moment, this campaign will highlight how we can still access our rich archival heritage online. I would encourage everyone to take this opportunity to find out more about what our archives offer for them, and explore the stories of local people, families, businesses and organisations held within these records.”

Hayden Burns, Chair of Archives and Records Council Wales, said: “We are delighted to participate in the Explore Your Archives week once again this year. The campaign provides an excellent opportunity to educate everyone about the value of archives and the importance of protecting and preserving our documentary heritage.

“The historic collections held by Welsh archive services are the documented memory of the people, events and places of Wales. They tell our stories and in doing so, they connect us with the past and give us a sense of identity.”

To start exploring, why not visit your local archive service online – https://archives.wales/welsh-archive-repositories/

· Follow Archives Wales on social media for daily highlights. Twitter and Facebook @ArchivesWales @ArchifauCymru

Dublin City Council Archive – A city response to Covid-19

Back in March, when the pandemic took hold in Ireland and the first lockdown was introduced, it was clear that we were living through unprecedented times. In Dublin City Library and Archive, we were keen to collect and preserve Dublin’s experience of the pandemic for posterity.

We put out a call through the press and via our social media channels, and were bowled over by the response we received! People submitted photographs of empty streets and got in touch with personal stories and diary entries. We received pieces of creative writing inspired by the pandemic, as well as school projects and drawings by children. We heard from businesses impacted by the restrictions, and from older people who were cocooning. People got in touch with photos of socially distanced weddings, and with stories of not being able to get home to other countries to see loved ones.

We are now processing the material that we’ve received, and as part of Explore your Archive week, we wanted to put together a short video to showcase a small selection of the material that was submitted.

We’re really grateful to the people of Dublin who have helped us create this collection, which will doubtlessly be of interest to researchers of the future.

Stephanie Rousseau – Dublin City Archive

Business Archives Council Scotland Supporting Scottish businesses for 60 years.

2020 marks the 60th anniversary of the Business Archives Council of Scotland (BACS).

BACS started as the initiative of Sydney Checkland(pictured) who, in 1957, was appointed the new Professor of Economic History at the University of Glasgow. He immediately started raising funds from the business community in Glasgow to establish a Lecturer in Business History – the Colquhoun Lecturer. His task was also to survey historical business records of firms in Glasgow and the West of Scotland. The first Colquhoun Lecturer was Peter Payne, in post from 1959 to 1969. Working with assistants he established the Economic History Department Business Record collection. From 1970 the then Scottish Record Office along with the National Register of Archives for Scotland funded the appointment of several Regional Registrars as business surveyors.

In 1977 the BACS Executive Committee, matching funding from the Scottish Record Office, appointed a Business Surveyor to continue the work of the Regional Registrars. Between 1977 and 2011, a period of 34 Years, fifteen Surveyors worked on behalf of BACS to locate, survey and find a home for business records often at risk of destruction. This initiative has contributed nearly 900 surveys to be deposited with NRAS and many hundreds of collections deposited with public archives.

In 2014 surveying activity was reinstated when BACS raised funds in collaboration with the Ballast Trust, the Lind Foundation, the University of Glasgow Archive Services, and the University of Aberdeen’s Capturing the Energy project to appoint a new Business Archives Surveyor. From 2016 this post has been funded by the Ballast Trust with strong links to the BACS.

Today BACS is primarily a networking organisation for creators, custodians and users of business archives. Our activities include an annual conference, training workshops and our corporate connections events for members. We also publish a regular newsletter and our journal – Scottish Business and Industrial Heritage (first published in 1977), which contains articles by professional historians and independent scholars, covering a wide range of topics on Scotland’s business and industrial past. Past issues of the journal 1977-2014 are available to download from our website.

We started this year with lots of plans to celebrate the anniversary particularly using social media and were pleased to take part in the ARA Scotland #Archive30 campaign throughout April. We were assisted in this by University of Glasgow student Alexandra Foulds who created a series of tweets to tie in with the daily themes and showcased our anniversary and history at the same time.

Unfortunately, our remaining plans to celebrate the anniversary were somewhat derailed by COVID, but the executive committee have been working from home offices and kitchen tables to engage with our members and we’ve extended our activities into 2021.

Members may have noticed that this year we’ve adopted a whole new look for BACS and launched a brand new website. Our ‘look’ actually comes from our own archive as we re-visited BACS’s first logo and updated it! As part of the celebrations we also commissioned three new videos to highlight the breath, depth and value of business archives in Scotland. Thankfully filming for the videos was completed before lockdown and the videos are now available. In the videos we answer the question – What are Business Archives? We explores the types of records held by Business Archives and the different ways they can be used. We also reflect on the community that BACS has created and how it has changed since the Council was established.

LINKS TO FILMS

What is a Business Archive?

History of BACS

Business Archive Collections

We are also working on an anniversary edition of Scottish Business and Industrial Heritage, which will look back at the history and achievements of BACS. It will be published in May 2021 to mark the anniversary of our first AGM. We also hope to have a launch event/birthday party then if possible.

Leading to May next year we will be running a BACS moments Twitter campaign #BACScot60, please follow us for interesting facts about BACS and key moments and collections from Scotland’s business archives.

Finally, unfortunately we have to end on a more sober note. Today and for the months to come businesses across the UK are facing unprecedented hardship. The full impact of COVID 19 restrictions and Brexit are still to be felt but there is a real danger that records of historic or culturally significant businesses will be lost or destroyed. With this in mind, BACS has worked with the Scottish Council on Archives to create new guidance, titled Collecting in a Crisis: A Guide to Rescuing Business Records. We hope that this step-by-step guidance for dealing with a crisis management case will be helpful to the archive community.

Amanada Noble (BACS Chair)

Kiara King (Ballast Trust)

Taking History Day online – Creating a digital fair to discover history collections

Since 2014, History Day has brought together students, researchers and history enthusiasts with professionals from archives, libraries, publishers and other organisations with history collections. Past History Days have taken place at Senate House in London, the home of the Institute of Historical Research Library and Senate House Library, the central library of the University of London. A fair with stalls representing different history organisations was set up to browse, explore and interact with. The event has attracted as many as 243 attendees and 192 participants from a wide range of institutions. This year, because of the on-going impact Covid-19, we have had to rethink the format of History Day entirely. When it became clear that we wouldn’t be able to hold an event which attracted large crowds, we decided to take History Day 2020 online.  

One of the biggest challenges in taking this step was re-envisioning the format of History Day for the online world while maintaining the spirit of the event. One of History Day’s greatest achievements is bringing people together in one space and helping them to get up close to history collections and those responsible for managing them. Ensuring that we could recreate this interactivity online meant we had to invest a lot of thought in how we would ask organisations to participate and in which ways we could enable audiences to interact with them. We made the decision to offer multiple pathways to allow as many as possible to join in and get creative with their contributions. We will be offering a mix of live sessions during the day, including virtual collection tours, Q&As, quizzes, show and tells and even a podcast live recording session. Alongside the live events, we are creating a gallery of pre-recorded content full of links to blogs, videos and images to help you discover new collections online.  

Despite the challenges, going online has had many advantages. We have been able to invite participants from across the UK and beyond to this year’s event, rather than restricting it to those able to travel to London. On top of that, we were delighted to be accepted as part of the Being Human festival, the UK’s national festival of the humanities. This allows us to reach a wider public audience than ever before. We are looking forward to being a springboard that introduces history enthusiast everywhere to the treasures that history collections hold.  

Organising History Day has been an opportunity to reflect on the importance of history, or more specifically how we collect and provide access to the sources to study it. We have organised three online sessions for the day to explore these themes. 2020 has been a historic year with the global social and economic disruption in the wake of the Covid-19 pandemic and the impact on cultural institutions has been immense. In response many of us have had to rethink how to open up our collections online to populations in lockdown and to a new world of social distancing. One example of this is the Bibliothèque nationale de France’s online sessions La BnF dans mon salon (“The BnF in my living room”) which brought collections into French homes during lockdown. They will be represented at the Exploring History in the Digital World session alongside other innovative digital projects bringing history closer to online audiences. In the last months, hundreds of collection projects have been initiated to archive the history of 2020, such as the Black Cultural Archives’ call to document the Black Lives Matter protests in the UK, Document! : Black Lives Matter. The Black Cultural Archives together with other panellists representing different initiatives will explore how 2020 is being archived for future generations at the session History in the Making: Archiving 2020 for the future. This year also saw new outreach projects launched to connect people with their local histories. For example, the campaign History Begins at Home, led by the Norfolk County Council’s archive service, was launched to get everyone across the generations to connect with each other during the coronavirus pandemic. Find out more about how local and community historians and associations are reaching out in new ways in our show and tell session New Approaches to Local and Community History

Sign up to join us for History Day 2020 on 19 November 2020, coinciding with the Being Human festival, the UK’s national festival of the humanities. You can view the programme and find out more at the History Collections blog. To receive updates on History Day, subscribe to our mailing list

Bridging the Digital Gap Traineeships Bring New Skills into Archives

Today’s documentary evidence is recorded as a series of 0s and 1s and stored on hard drives and servers. Therefore, archives need technical people and new approaches to capture and preserve these digital records today to ensure they are available in the future.  

Bridging the Digital Gap, the technical traineeship programme from The National Archives, aims to bring in new people with different skills and backgrounds to create a digitally equipped and more diverse workforce. Through these traineeships, talented technical people use their skills to increase archives’ ability to retain and safeguard vital digital materials and to find new ways for others to access the history they record. 

Supported by the National Lottery Heritage Fund, the programme involves three cohorts of eight trainees each. Trainees are employed by The National Archives and seconded to a host institution for their 15-month placement. Hosts include local archives and record offices, universities, and charities.  

The first two cohorts of trainees worked at archives in Yorkshire, Norfolk, and London in 2018-2020. The third cohort will be based in London and the South West in 2021-2022.  

While working at their host institution, trainees receive on-the-job training in standard archive practices and digital-specific areas. They are involved in digital preservation, digitisation, digital capture, cataloguing, and digital engagement. 

Depending on the materials in their host archive, trainees have digitised paper-based materials, photographic prints and negatives, films, videotapes, and audiotapes. They have uploaded digital ‘surrogates’ of analogue items to their host’s online catalogue, geo-tagged images on their host’s website, and expanded information about archival films on their host’s YouTube channel. 

Through their training in digital preservation, trainees have learned to ‘ingest’ digital files (text, images, audio, and video) and migrate digital collections into their host’s digital repository, usually Preservica or Archivematica. They have run regular checks to ensure the digital materials are retaining their integrity.   

Some have captured emails and websites for inclusion in the digital archive. Others have made preservation copies of assets on digital media that are becoming obsolete. 

Trainees have written blog posts, tweets, and Instagram stories. One devised an innovative social media campaign in which oral history recordings were linked with subtitled video clips. 

During their paid placement, trainees also take part in a series of training opportunities provided by The National Archives, such as workshops, online courses, and seminars with expert speakers. Each trainee has a personal budget to spend on conferences and courses of their choice. They can also take advantage of member-only benefits from organisations to which TNA belongs, such as the Digital Preservation Coalition and the Open Preservation Foundation.  

Through the programme’s partner, the Archives and Records Association (ARA), trainees receive individual membership and work toward Foundation Membership of ARA during their placement.  

The Bridging the Digital Gap programme enables trainees to develop key skills that prepare them for careers in the heritage sector. Trainees from the first cohort are now employed in digital roles at the British Library, Cambridge University Library, and British Film Institute. 

For more information go to www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/digitaltrainees

By Chris Jones, Bridging the Digital Gap project manager, The National Archives

Featured Archive – The University of Stirling Archives and Special Collections

The University of Stirling Archives and Special Collections (ASC) moved from our lovely loch side reading room to computers hastily set up in our homes among the houseplants back in March, much like everyone else. In the usual run of things we keep the institutional memory of the University itself and collect around the University’s key research interests. Over the years this has made us the permanent place of deposit for the NHS Forth Valley records and had us collect around Film & Media, African History, Aquaculture and Politics to name but a few. In recent years we’ve also had a particular focus on Sporting Heritage collections, creating the Commonwealth Games Scotland Archive and receiving support from the National Lottery Heritage Fund to kickstart a Scottish Boxing Archive too.

We work with staff, students and external researchers, teach classes, lead tours and even host the occasional cake sale!

Our Grand Bake Sale in November 2019 used a cook book produced in 1925 to raise money for the new Falkirk & District Royal Infirmary.

We love working closely with colleagues across the campus, facilitating research visits to the Scottish Political Archive and collaborating with the University Art Collection on exhibitions and events. Our own exhibition Hosts and Champions has displayed treasures from our Commonwealth Games Scotland Archive all over Scotland since it opened in 2015 – even making it all the way to the Gold Coast Games in 2018!

We usually run a well utilised volunteer programme with some long standing volunteers we’ve worked with for years and some shorter term volunteers who stay with us for a year or a semester to learn some new skills and we’re so proud of the volunteers we have who go on to do archives qualifications themselves! We’re missing our volunteers very much throughout lockdown, like I’m sure many services are so we’re happy to be redesigning some of our regular projects for remote users so that we can welcome back some volunteers and help a new round of folk develop their skills in the near future!

Sporting Treasures from our Tales from the Ring project.

During lockdown, we have continued to process enquiries as much as we can with the digital resources available to us – some of them the product of our wonderful volunteers! We have also tried to find new and remote ways of encouraging users to explore our archives! Every Thursday lunchtime 1-2pm we host a #CollectionsInColour hour where we explore our collections through a specific theme. Previously these hours were dedicated to #BrigInColour as we launched the digital archive of the University of Stirling’s student newspaper Brig. You can search these hashtags to find all of the amazing content already out there – supplemented by the Art Collection and the Scottish Political Archive and join us for future themes every Thursday on our Twitter and Facebook pages. We have playlists, we have colouring in sheets, we have jigsaws and we have a heck of a lot of cool archives to show you! Recent themes have included fashion, 70 years since Scotland first hosted the Commonwealth Games and travel.

Like many other archive services, we launched a Covid-19 collecting project during lockdown which is ongoing. As we hold the archives of NHS Forth Valley and will one day receive their records relating to this period, we hoped to build an archive of personal and local stories that complemented this. So we put a call out for videos of the weekly Clap for NHS/Clap for Carers/Clap for Key Workers; for images of local communities in Forth Valley and how lockdown and/or coronavirus had altered the landscape, impacted on services and shaped people’s daily lives; and we asked participants who were willing to keep a reasonably regular lockdown diary. It is never too late to take part in this project, you can send us any videos you may have previously taken of the Thursday night clapping, images you may have taken out and about during lockdown or start a diary now. We hoped when we launched the project that these activities would be a creative and cathartic outlet during a frustrating time and that they might improve mindfulness and foster good mental health and we encourage participants to only engage in the project if this is the case for them! There is no pressure to produce content or to continue once you have started if doing so becomes burdensome or stressful. A gallery of some selected lockdown images can be seen here – we’ve loved seeing Forth Valley through the eyes of our project participants.

Excitingly, the time has come for our Archive Service to reopen. As the University Library launches a click and collect service, we’ve opened the doors to our reading room once more – with some changes, of course! All the information on using the service now we have been reopened can be found here – we’re still hoping to deal with many enquiries remotely with custom digitisation and by completing research on your behalf but the option to visit us is now possible, just remember you have to book an appointment!

Our Commonwealth Games Scotland Archive got the red carpet treatment at Team Scotland’s annual awards ceremony in 2019. Our red carpet is waiting for you from 3rd August!

ArchI’ve Discovered – Manage Your Collections

I will never forget my very first experience of working in an archive and feeling the excitement at cataloguing a small collection into CALM and then seeing the finished description online. If I wasn’t already pretty set on my future career path, that settled it for me; I was hooked and ready for more. Working with archives is an immense privilege and whilst I will always get slightly giddy at seeing original, historic documents, providing access to these collections through arranging and describing them has been a primary driver throughout my career. I don’t just want to experience the awe of them for myself; I want the widest possible audience to know they exist and that they are there for use and research.

Although I no longer work with collections directly anymore, I am still just as passionate about providing access to collections through description and happily get to continue this work in my current role as Digital Development Officer at The National Archives. Working in the Archives Sector Development department, I help to facilitate access to and support for our web-based collections publishing tool, Manage Your Collections (MYC). Launched in 2017 and used by over 230 archives so far, MYC allows archives the ability to add their collection descriptions to Discovery, a union catalogue of The National Archives and other UK archives, which comprises over 33 million record descriptions (one-third of those from UK archives). Discovery gets on average 20,000 hits a day from researchers and so by adding collection descriptions to Discovery, exposure to collections is amplified to an international audience.

Training session with Clevedon Pier & Heritage Trust community archive on archive cataloguing and Manage Your Collections

The digital age we find ourselves in today, with information seemingly at our fingertips, is a real boon for archives. Collections information can be published in online catalogues, archive services can be found on YouTube and Instagram, and Archives Twitter is the reason why I haven’t yet deleted my account. The content is just too enticing – the Sainsbury’s Archive recent 1980 Yoghurt World Cup being just one example. However, although there’s a lot we see, I am also very aware of what we don’t see. There are many, many archives out there who don’t have any way to get their collection descriptions online due to resourcing – money, time and people are all constraints on the work that archives, particularly community archives, can undertake.

This, however, is where I see MYC being of particular benefit to community archives. Over the last couple of years as we have rolled MYC out, we have had opportunities to work with some community archives, to learn about the challenges they face and the obstacles they need to overcome to be able to publish collections online. We’ve been able to shape guidance, like our Cataloguing archive collections webpage, where we introduce what archival cataloguing looks like to those dedicated volunteers who find themselves at the helm of caring for community collections without formal training in archival management. We have also developed training in how to describe collections and how to apply that knowledge in order to use MYC. Happily, we have also been able to celebrate with community archives as they have published collections to Discovery, including a recent addition of the Spratton Local History Collection.

It can feel overwhelming thinking about how we can take boxes on shelves and turn them into neat descriptions, particularly as ISAD(G), the international cataloguing standard for archives, can seem like learning a new language to the uninitiated. To help demystify the process a little and to give real world examples from community-based organisations who use MYC, we have published case studies showing how each archive has developed processes for describing and publishing their collections online for the very first time.

Collections that reside with community and heritage groups have just as much use and research potential as those that reside in larger, better-resourced archives. Discovery has the potential to surface marginalised voices and histories and to allow us to build a more representative national narrative than any single catalogue could do on its own. If we want to reach more and diverse audiences, we need people to know archives exist. One of the fundamental drivers of this connectivity is access to resources that will enable the provision of online access to collections. MYC and Discovery can play a key role in this by providing a platform that is free to use and that allows archives to take full control of their content. What’s more, MYC provides the training and support needed for community archives to feel like they can confidently tackle the task.  

For more information about MYC, please feel free to hop on over to our webpages or email us at manageyourcollections@nationalarchives.gov.uk.

Caroline Catchpole, Digital Development Officer

ArchI’ve Campaigned

The Archives and Records Association, Scotland’s social media campaigns: #ArchiveZ and Instagram

I think it is safe to say that this year is a little different than most, no matter what part of the archives and record keeping sector we work in. With everything going on in the world just now, so many of our colleagues working from home, and being away from our collections, social media has been a great way to stay connected to one another, and to feel connected to our beloved archives, even from a distance.

We’re now 12 weeks into the 2020 #ArchiveZ ARAS campaign, which we are running on all three of our social media accounts – Twitter, Facebook, and our latest addition, Instagram. With a new letter of the alphabet as the ‘theme’ each week, the campaign is more relaxed than some of our other campaigns, where archivists and repositories can contribute as much or as little as they like and can include almost anything you can think of from your collections, so long as they match the weekly theme – no matter how tenuous!

Instagram: the latest addition to the ARAS social media family

We set up the ARAS Instagram account in 2019, with two aims: the first was to expand our social media engagement with ARA Scotland members and the wider public; the second was to create a space to amplify the voices and contents of our Scottish collections, giving the opportunity for institutions which already have a social media presence, as well as those who are just beginning to explore the possibilities that Instagram provides. Instagram is quickly becoming a key platform for reaching a younger demographic worldwide, and as it is image-focused, creates an ideal space for allowing the public to gain an insight into life within the archive, highlighting the repositories, archivists, special projects, and the collections themselves in a new way.

The first content on the Instagram account was during last year’s #Archive30, showing items from the collections from the ARAS committee members that fit the daily themes, as a way to test the waters for the new platform. In June, we hosted our first Scottish Archive Highlight, sharing the collections of the University of Dundee archives. Since then, in addition to posts relating to ARAS events, social media campaigns, and providing information to our followers, we have been hosting monthly highlights of different Scottish archives from university, business, and local authority archives. As every archive is entirely unique, each month’s archive highlight has been a completely different experience, despite the same basic themes being explored each month. In a post each day, featured archives introduce the repository, most popular collections, staff highlight, volunteer or community highlight, and a wildcard or event announcement to the account followers.

Instagram: Tips & Tricks

Based on experiences running the ARAS Instagram over the past year, as well as my own personal experience using Instagram, Below are some tips and tricks specific to creating content for Instagram, although they apply to other platforms as well.

1. Keep it simple

There is no right way to run any social media account, but the best way to keep your activity sustainable is to keep it simple, and make it something that YOU know about, and are interested in talking about—it makes it so much easier to write the content if you care about the topic, and it helps you answer any questions from your followers!

2. Use lots of visuals to share your archive stories

Visuals are always important on social media—a picture really is worth a thousand words, which is particularly important when you have a character limit! Instagram’s character limit is substantially larger than Twitter’s, but your audience may not always be inclined to read an essay of a caption. If you can grab their attention with a captivating visual, however, they may be more interested in learning more about what they are seeing. In addition to still images, video clips provide a great way to portray the scale of an item, or to engage with it in a more dynamic way. This is particularly useful just now, with so many of us working from home and without public access to our physical collections, as it allows for more meaningful digital engagement with our archives.

3. Vary your content, but stay consistent

I realise that this may seem like a contradiction—particularly when first starting an Instagram account, I think it is important to experiment with the types of content you share with your followers, but it is equally important to share your content consistently. What is your target audience? What messages do you want to share with that audience? Questions like these should be used to help you decide the best time of day to post, and what types of content you want to share. Once those questions have been answered, plan out a schedule of when you are posting—even if only once per month, make it so each post goes out at the same time. Making a schedule is particularly helpful if more than one person is contributing to the account, making sure that there are not inadvertent long periods without content to share with your followers.

4. Jump in with existing campaigns or start your own!

Keep an eye out for local and sector-wide social media campaigns that you can adapt to items from your collections. While each platform has its own community, campaigns and hashtags travel well across platforms. Twitter is an absolutely fantastic place to keep up to date with upcoming social media campaigns and themed days—each month @ArchiveHashtag posts a really useful run through of the month’s themed days, giving plenty of time to schedule content, and any campaigns run by ARA or ARAS will be shared through our member lists, and our social media accounts.

5. Use content across platforms

If you are already using other social media platforms, there is no reason why not to use the same content on Instagram too, potentially with a few minor tweaks. If you are used to posting on Twitter, then Instagram may appear slower paced, but that can work to your advantage. As mentioned above, Instagram’s caption length limits are much higher than Twitter’s, meaning that if you are putting out a thread of content on Twitter with associated visuals, the thread can be condensed into a single Instagram post, with up to 10 pieces of media (including videos up to 0:59 seconds long). Posts can be published directly to both an Instagram and Facebook page through the Instagram app, and both are compatible with scheduling programs such as Hootsuite.

Since beginning on the new platform a year ago, the ARAS Instagram account has become a central part of our engagement channels; we have successfully attracted over 560 followers and have highlighted twelve archives across Scotland. During feature weeks the account receives an average of 2000 impressions on Instagram, with an additional audience through Facebook, where posts are also shared. Our feature week posts have encouraged the public to engage with collections and their repositories, often asking questions either about the collections and content shared, or else for more specific information for their own research. We have really enjoyed watching Instagram become more popular amongst archives across Scotland, and are looking forward to seeing what the next year brings!

Ravana Eagleheart – Communications Officer ARA Scotland

Email :arascotland@archives.org.uk 

Facebook @scotlandara

Twitter @ARAScot

Instagram @ara_scotland

Accidental Travel

In the UK, before Covid-19 many of us travelled with relatively little thought – whether by private or individual means, or public transport. But during lockdown our habits largely changed – certainly in terms of travelling any distance. As lockdown eases we’re being urged to avoid public transport where possible – and transport workers have paid a high price for their jobs. Bus staff have one of the highest mortality rates, for example, by occupational group. It’s a valuable reminder that whilst travel can be liberating for passengers, it relies on the labour of staff to make possible – and with it come risks.

The ‘Railway Work, Life & Death’  project is looking further back in time, at accidents and ill-health amongst British and Irish railway employees, between approximately 1889 and 1939. We’re a collaboration between the National Railway Museum, the Modern Records Centre at the University of Warwick and the University of Portsmouth, working with The National Archives of the UK. We have small, but dedicated, volunteer teams transcribing and researching the accidents contained within documents held at each of the archives – and we’d particularly like to thank them, as without them, nothing would happen. Collaboration and co-production are at the core of our approach, with our volunteers and with people who are making use of project resources.

We are making the transcriptions freely available via our website, to try to improve awareness and use of this invaluable resource. So – we’re working with physical archives, to create a type of digital archive! To date we’ve made available around 6,500 cases covering 1901-1923, but we’re working on an estimated 70,000 further cases across our period. Details come from accident investigations produced by state-appointed inspectors, railway companies and trades unions. They tell us all sorts about staff working practices, workplace hazards and the individual impacts of accidents in one of the UK’s most hazardous industries.

A graphic representation of the data in our first dataset, covering 1911-15. We have since expanded our coverage.

How does all this relate to travel? Well, in all sorts of ways! As noted, passenger travel would not have been possible without the staff running the railway system. Then, as now, they’re easy to overlook – one of our hopes is to make the working lives and experiences of railway employees more visible. Whilst generally you won’t find passenger travel accidents in our archive, of course staff crewed the trains that were involved, so they do fall within our remit – as in the Reading 1914 accident discussed here . We also encourage guest blog posts, and sometimes they touch upon passenger experiences, as in this example .

A posed warning from the Caledonian Railway in 1921 about the dangers of leaving the footplate when the engine was moving.

Staff travel sometimes appears in the records. Sometimes it was more conventional than others. We know that on 11 May 1911, at around 9.20 in the evening, eighteen-year old Caledonian Railway Company signal lighter (someone employed to keep the lamps on signal alight) G Gray was travelling in carriage near Gourock, in Renfrewshire. He leant out to check whether a signal was lit, but the carriage door flew open and he fell from the train. Fortunately for him, he survived, suffering only scalp wounds. Our database is a litany of staff injured or killed on the move: oiling locomotives whilst running, riding on the outside of wagons, thrown from wagons they were travelling in – even one case in which an employee had his leg, ankle and foot injured when three hogsheads of beer fell on him as he was working in a wagon being moved!

A 1924 London, Midland and Scottish Railway image cautioning about dangerous use of trollies.

It isn’t just the obvious railway travel which features in our data. The railways at this time had substantial interests in all forms of travel, including road transport. We have accidents involving carts and lorries, both staff and non-staff – plenty of people had reason to be working on and near the railways, like coal merchants, carters and farmers. Porters had to move trollies around stations, often across railway lines, and track maintenance staff used trollies to travel to their point of work, sometimes falling from them. This happened on 15 April 1914, when Thomas Hall and William Turner fell from the trollies they were riding on between Chilham and Wye in Kent, injuring their legs. Hydraulic hoists in stations injured or killed staff who were riding in them against the rules – as in the case of Jane Horner, at Stockton station, County Durham, in 1913 (and discussed further here ). And of course, walking was a key means of travel for workers and is found in our project as a part of the accidents staff experienced.

Staff had to travel to or from work, as well. Sometimes this might involve them getting from the immediate point of ‘clocking on/off’ to where they needed to be – as in the case of Midland Railway temporary goods porter TH Narey, at Shipley in Derbyshire. On 23 February 1911 he was walking on the railway when travelling from the goods warehouse where he worked; he was hit by a train, losing an arm and some teeth. The investigation records that he didn’t exercise ‘necessary care’ but also hadn’t been properly supervised; it seems it was common for men to walk along the line here, tacitly being accepted by the foremen.

Not all danger warnings used images – some were stark, like this 1930 LMS poster.

These, and sadly plenty more cases like them, all came about – directly or indirectly – as a result of travel. What do they all tell us? By finding out more about the individuals who had accidents on the railways, we can see the true costs of the industry – and travel, of passengers and goods. We can see how work was carried out, often including why staff acted in seemingly counterintuitive ways that exposed them to danger.

What are the next steps for the project? We’re always keen to see where staff accidents appear in the holdings of archives beyond those we’re presently working with – we’ve recently been put on to what looks to be an interesting clutch of compensation records at Doncaster Archives, for example. Finding records like these takes some sneaky searching – and the expertise of the archivists, who might have encountered the sorts of things we’re looking for but which are either yet to be catalogued in detail or where accidents feature incidentally to the main purpose of the record.

A simple geographic breakdown of the 1911-15 data – we’d like to take it right down to individual locations, with an interactive map.

In terms of our immediate work, there are an awful lot more records to transcribe! We’re working on that, as well as researching as many cases as possible beyond the records we’re handling. In the longer term, we’d like to produce an interactive map of the cases, to provide a much more easily visualised and accessible entry point. We’re keen to move beyond the records of the formal railway industry – we want to link our material to other records, to make it possible to build a life-story of the individuals involved: newspaper reports, births, marriage and death records, autobiography, and family history. We’d like to build a tool to allow anyone to submit the records they are aware of, including details or stories from within their family. All of this will mean we can piece together a much greater picture of the impacts of staff accidents, and will really improve awareness, understanding and use of the records. Watch this space!

And if you fancy getting involved – in transcription, once we’re able to get back into the archives and photograph records, a guest blog post, to alert us to archives we should know about or something else, please just drop us a line. We’d be delighted to hear from you!

Karen Baker, National Railway Museum

Mike Esbester, University of Portsmouth

Helen Ford, Modern Records Centre

More information on the project is available from the dedicated website (www.railwayaccidents.port.ac.uk) and via our Twitter feed (@RWLDproject). You can contact us on railwayworkeraccidents@gmail.com